Wm. Max Miller,
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View mummies in the
Including the mummy identified as Queen Hatshepsut.
Including the mummy identified as Queen Tiye.
Featuring the controversial KV 55
mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children.
Still in preparation.
Now including the
mummy identified as
21'st Dynasty Coffins from DB320
Examine the coffins
of 21'st Dynasty Theban Rulers.
Including the mummy identified as Tutankhamen's mother.
About the Dockets
Using this website for research papers
Links to Egyptology websites
Biographical Data about William Max Miller
The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents.
Raiders of KV 46
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of
Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves
after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.
Special KV 55 Section
Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.
55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?
The KV 55 Coffin Basin
and Gold Foil Sheets
Gold Foil at the Metropolitan
Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands
See rare photographic plates of a great
discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.
Unknown Man E
Was he really
Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's
important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
Who were the real tomb raiders?
What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice
of tomb robbing.
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies
Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of
his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.
Audience With Amenophis II Journey
once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy chambers of KV 35 in the
Most of the images on this website have been
scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever
possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive
from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by
being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to
the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who
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material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author.
Feel free to use material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website.
No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines
which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban
Royal Mummy Project proper credit on your own papers, articles, or
This website is constantly developing and contributions
of data from other researchers are welcomed.
Contact The Theban Royal Mummy Project at:
Background Image: Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl
Richard Lepsius, Denkmšler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)
The Coffins of Pinudjem I
(Usurped from Tuthmosis I)
Close-up and full views of Pinudjem I's inner coffin lid.
(Photo credit: CESRAS.)
When closely examined, the outer coffin that had been decorated and inscribed for Pinudjem I was found to have been usurped from the funerary equipment of Tuthmosis I. The inner coffin of this set (shown above) is also usually seen as an appropriation from the same 18íth Dynasty rulerís burial equipment. Edward Loring, however, points out that opinions regarding the dating and previous ownership of the inner coffin are not unanimous, and references Daressy, Robins, and Eaton-Krauss in support of the possibility that the inner coffin was originally made for Pinudjem I. (TRC, 211, n. 66.) Regardless of the provenance of the inner coffin, extensive modifications had to be made to the 18'th Dynasty outer coffin in order to make it suitable for the burial of a 21'st Dynasty ruler.
The foot section from the outer coffin had been almost completely broken off and approximately 1/3 of the inner coffin's foot section was missing. These missing elements indicate that both coffins had been subjected to plundering, either anciently or more recently. Erhart Graefe, who conducted excavations in DB320 between 1998 and 2006, discovered a piece from the damaged foot end of Pinudjem I's inner coffin in Corridor F of DB320, suggesting that the coffin had been plundered by the Abd el-Rassul's in modern times. (TRC, 53f., cat. no. 007.) Additional damage is evident on the surface areas of both coffins which have been extensively marred with an adze, indicating that both had been lavishly covered with thick gold foil. The removal of this gilding had been done in a somewhat careful fashion and avoided damaging sacred images and certain inscriptions, showing that the adze-work had been executed during a processing procedure conducted under the supervision of necropolis officials. This processing most likely would have been done sometime during the transfer of Pinudjem I from a previous place (or places) of interment (one of which was probably the tomb of Inhapi) and his relocation to DB320.
Speculations about why Pinudjem I had chosen at least one of the coffins of Tuthmosis I for his own burial usually revolve around this 21íst Dynasty rulerís apparent fascination with his Tuthmosid ancestors. He had chosen the name Menkheperre (the throne name adopted by Tuthmosis III) for one of his sons, and named one of his daughters Maatkare, a name that had been used by Hatshepsut. Aidan Dodson points out that these particular names were fairly uncommon in the 21íst Dynasty (AoE, 45), and wonders if Pinudjem I may have been motivated to use them for two of his children because of antiquarian interests. Perhaps, like the rulers of the 20íth Dynasty who invariably chose to use the name Ramesses as part of their official titles, Pinudjem I wished to associate himself and his family with the glories of the Tuthmosids and also wanted to be permanently laid to rest in a coffin infused with the aura of this illustrious line of rulers. If this had been his intention, it was accidentally thwarted by confused necropolis workers who badly botched his interment. The mummy of Pinudjem I had probably been removed from his coffins for safety reasons while these heavy objects were precariously lowered down the deep entrance shaft of DB320 and put in place within the tomb. When they were finally reassembled, an anonymous mummy (traditionally--but dubiously--identified as Tuthmosis I) was accidentally placed in them, and the mummy of Pinudjem I somehow ended up in the large late-17íth or early-18íth Dynasty coffin of Ahotep, where it remained until its discovery in the 19'th century. (Source Bibliography: AoE, 45; CCR, 50ff.; pl. XXVIII; DRN, 213, n. 27, 255; MiAE, 329; TRC, 211, n. 66, 53f., cat. no. 007.)
Source Abbreviation Key
Face of Pinudjem I's outer coffin. (Photo credit:
Institute of Classical Architecture & Art,
Full outer coffin of Pinudjem I (Photo credit: CESRAS.)
Outer & inner coffin lids inscribed for Pinudjem I. Outer coffin (and
perhaps inner coffin also) had been usurped from Tuthmosis I. (Photo
credit: Georges Daressy's
Cercueils des cachettes royales
[Cairo, 1909,] pl. XXVIII.)
The Center for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy
of Sciences (CESRAS) maintains an extensive collection of
online images available for public use on Flickr and has posted large size
scans of many of the photographic plates from George Daressy's historically
important 1909 work, Cercueils des cachettes royales, which are featured on this page. The above images of the
coffins of Pinudjem I provide a valuable photographic record of these beautiful
objects, currently on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
More close up images of these coffin's decorations and
inscriptions may be seen by going to the CESRAS
Pinudjem I photostream.
Return to 21íst Dynasty Coffins Menu.